直接引语变成间接引语的句子结构的变化 1） 陈述句 He said, “I have been to the Great Wall. ” ——— He said to us that he had been to the Great Wall. 用连词that引导，that在口语中常省略。主句的谓语动词可直用接引语中的said, 也可用told来代替，注意，可以说said that, said to sb. that, told sb. that，不可直接说told that 2）一般疑问句 He said, “Do you have any difficulty with pronunciation?” He asked (me) whether/if I had any difficulty with my pronunciation. 间接引语用连词whether或if引导，原主句中谓语动词said要改为asked(me/him/us等)，语序是陈述句的语序 3）特殊疑问句 He said to me，“What s your name?” ———— He asked me what my name was. 原来的疑问词作为间接引语的连词，主句的谓语动词用ask(sb. )来表达，语序改为陈述句语序 4）选择疑问句 He asked, “Do you speak English or French?” ————He asked me whether I spoke English or French. 用whether…or…表达，而不用if…or…，也不用either…or… 5）祈使句 如果直接引语是祈使句，间接引语要用不定式的复合结构改，即改为：tell (ask, order, warn, advise等) sb. (not) to do sth. 如： The policeman said to the children, “Don’t play football in the street.” The policeman told the children not to play football in the street. “Listen to me carefully, please.” the teacher said to us. The teacher told us to listen to him carefully. 【温馨提示】如果祈使句中出现了please, 在间接引语中必须省略。 6）感叹句 如果直接引语是感叹句，变间接引语时，用what, how或that来引述。如： “What a beautiful house it is!” he said to me. He told me what a beautiful house it was. He told me that it was a beautiful house. Ⅰ. 引导词的选择及语序 1. 陈述句：S + V + that + 陈述语序 (S + V) “That is the trouble”, said Bill. 改为：Bill said _________ _________ _________ the trouble. 【注】：that 可省略，但如果是两个或两个以上的宾语从句并列，则第二个that不可省略。 He told me (that) he had finished his work and that he would like to have a holiday. 2. 一般疑问句：S + V + if / whether + 陈述语序 (S + V) He asked, “Are you leaving tonight?” 改为：He asked us _________ _________ _________ leaving that night. 3. 特殊疑问句：S + V + what / who / which / whose / when + 陈述语序 (S + V) “Why did you lock the door?” father said to Anne. 改为：Father asked Anne _________ _________ _________ _________ the door. 4.祈使句：S + V + sb. to do / not to do (1)表示“命令”：tell, order, command (2)表示“请求”：ask, beg, request (3)表示“建议”：advise, suggest “Don’t make noise in the library.” the teacher said to the students. 改为：The teacher _________ the students_________ _________ _________ noise in the library. Ⅱ. 时态的一致 1． 主句是过去时，变间接引语时，从句时态向“过去”退一步： 直接引语 间接引语 一般现在时 一般过去时 现在进行时 过去进行时 过去进行时 不变 一般过去时 过去完成时 过去完成时 不变 一般将来时 过去将来时 直接引语 间接引语 I work hard. He said that he _______________ hard. I am working hard. He said that he _______________ hard. I was working hard. He said that he _______________ hard. I worked hard. He said that he _______________ hard. I had worked hard. He said that he _______________ hard. I am going to work hard. He said that he _______________ hard. 但要注意在以下几种情况下。在直接引语变为间接引语时，时态一般不变化。 ①直接引语是客观真理。 “The earth moves around the sun and the moon moves around the earth, the teacher told me. → The teacher told me the earth moves around the sun and the moon moves around the earth。 ②直接引语是过去进行时，过去完成时，过去将来时，时态就不变。如： Jack said. “John, where were you going when I met you in the street?“→Jack asked John where he was going when he met him in the street。 ③直接引语中有具体的过去某年、某月、某日作状语，变为间接引语时，时态不变。如： Xiao Wang said. “I was born on April 2l, 1980?！?→Xiao Wang said he was born on April 20, 1980。 ④直接引语如果是一般现在时。表示一种反复出现或习惯性的动作，变间接引语，时态不变。如： He said, “I get up at six every morning?！?→He said he gets up at six every morning。 ⑤如果直接引语中的情态动词没有过去时的形式（例：ought to， had better, used to)和已经是过去时的形式时，（例：could, should, would, might）不再变。如： Peter said. “You had better come have today?！?→Peter said I had better go there that day。 Ⅲ. 人称及状语的变化 1． 人称变化：“一主二宾三不变” （直接引语中若出现第一人称则看主句主语，第二人称看主句宾语，第三人称无须变） 试观察： She said to him, “I am very hungry.” 改为：She told him that she was very hungry. She said to him, “You are very nice.” 改为：She told him that he was very nice. She said to him, “Lily is very nice.” 改为：She told him that Lily was very nice. 2. 状语与限定词变化：“这这那那，来来去去” 直接引语 间接引语 this that these those now then today that day tomorrow the next day / the following day yesterday the day before / the previous day next year / week / month the next year / week / month last year / night / week the year / night / week before ago before here there come go “I put the key on this table yesterday.” 改为：______________________________________________ Ⅳ. Exercise 一. 改写句子（把直接引语改为间接引语） 1. “I am having supper,” he said. 改为：He said that _________ _________ having supper. 2. “I’ve seen the film,” Gina said to me. 改为：Gina _________ me that _________ _________ _________ the film. 3. “I went home with my sister,” she said. 改为：She said that _________ _________ _________ home with her sister. 4. The teacher said, “The sun is bigger than the moon.” 改为：The teacher said that the sun _________ bigger than the moon. 5. “I met her yesterday,” he said to me. 改为：He told me that he _________ _________ her _________ _________ _________. 6. “You must come here before five,” he said. 改为：He said that I _________ to go _________ before five. 7. “Were you born in 1979?” he said. 改为：He _________ me _________ I _________ born in 1979. 8. He said, “You can sit here, Jim.” 改为：He _________ Jim that he _________ _________ _________. 9. He asked, “How did you find it, mother?” 改为：He asked his mother _________ _________ _________ _________ it. 10. “Where have you been these days?” he asked. 改为：He asked me _________ _________ _________ been _________ days. 11. “Do you know where she lives?” he asked. 改为：He asked _________ _________ knew where she _________. 12. “Keep quite, children.” he said. 改为：He _________ the children _________ _________ quite. 13. “Don’t look out of the window,” she said. 改为：She _________ me _________ _________ _________ out of the window. 14. “Are you interested in this?” he said. 改为：He _________ _________ I was interested in _________. 二． 句子翻译： 1. 汤姆说他2009年加入了这家驾驶俱乐部。 ________________________________________________________________________ 2. 他告诉我他把书落在房间里了。 ________________________________________________________________________ 3. 凯特问我当天晚上是否陪她看电影。 ________________________________________________________________________ 4. 我的小学英语老师常说熟能生巧。 ________________________________________________________________________ 5. 妈妈问我是怎么修好我的单车的。 ________________________________________________________________________ 6. 老师让学生们别浪费自己的时间。 ________________________________________________________________________ 7. 她说她在等车的时候就读完那本书了。 ________________________________________________________________________ 8. 警察问那个人前天晚上他在公园里都干了些什么。 ________________________________________________________________________ 9. 他说他求职时已经告诉他们他的故事了。 ________________________________________________________________________ 10. 将军命令所有士兵马上上前线。 ________________________________________________________________________ Ⅴ. Keys: Ⅰ. 1. that that was 2. whether / if we were 3. why she had locked 4. told, not to make Ⅱ. 2. that the earth goes 3. that she was 4. he has been married Exercise: 一. 1. he was 2. told she had seen 3. she had gone 4. is 5. had met; the day before 6. had; there; 7. asked; if / whether; was 8. told; could sit there 9. how she had found 10. where I had; those 11. if / whether I; lived 12. told; to keep 13. told; not to look 14. asked if / whether; that 二．1. Tom said that he joined the driving club in 2009. 2. He told me that he had left his book in his room. 3. Kate asked me if / whether I would go to the cinema with her that evening. 4. My English teacher in the primary school often said that practice makes perfect. 5. My mother asked me how I had repaired my bike. 6. The teacher told the students not to waste their time. 7. She said she had finished reading the book while she was waiting for the bus. 8. The policeman asked the man what he had done in the park the night before. 9. He said that he had told them all about his story when he asked for a job. 10. The general ordered all his soldiers to go to the front line at once. 课后练习： I.将所给直接引语变为间接引语，每空一词： 1. “I never eat meat.” he said. He said that ______ never ______ meat. 2. “I’ve found my wallet.” he said to me. He ______ me that he ______ ______ ______ wallet. 3. “I took it home with me.” she said. She said that ______ ______ _______ it home with her. 4. The teacher said, “The sun rises in the east and goes down in the west.” The teacher said that the sun ______ in the east and ______ down in the west. 5. “I met her yesterday.” he said to me. He ______ me that he ______ met the day ______. 6. “You must come here before five.” he said. He said that I ______ to go ______ before five. 7. “I bought the house 10 years ago.” he said. He said that he _______ bought the house 10 years _______. 8. “Did you see her last week?” he said. He ______ ______ I had seen her the week _______. 9. He said, “You can sit here, Jim.” He ______ Jim that he ______ sit there 10. He asked, “How did you find it, mother?” He asked her mother ______ ______ ______ found it. 11. “Where have you been these days?” he asked. He asked me _______ _______ _______been _______ days. 12. “Do you know where she lives?” he asked. He asked ______ ______ knew where she ______. 13. “Stop making so much noise, children.” he said. He ______ the children ______ ______ making so much noise. 14. “Don’t tell him the news.” she said. She told me _______ ______ ______ him the news. 15. “Are you intested in this?” he said. He ______ ______ I was interestd in ______. II 从A、B、C、D四个选项中，选出可以填入空白处的最佳选项。 1. He asked me ________ I would go to Beijing by air the next day. A. that if B. if C. that whether D. how 2. —Joyce, please don’t open the window. —Pardon? —I ______ open the window. A. tell you don’t B. tell you not to C. told you didn’t D. told you not to 3. He _____ they didn’t start early they wouldn’t catch the first bus. A. said that if B. asked if C. asked whether D. said that whether 4. He asked _______ for the violin. A. did I pay how much B. I paid how much C. how much I paid D. how much did I pay 5. The teacher asked us ______ so much noise. (北京2003) A. don’t make B. not make C. not making D. not to make 6. The doctor asked me what _______ with me. A. is wrong B. wrong is C. was wrong D. wrong was 7. He asked the boy where _______. A. his mother was B. was his mother C. his mother is D. is his mother 8. They said at last that they _______ better start out at once. A. had had B. had C. had been D. was 9. The teacher said that doubt _______ the key of knowledge. A. were B. are C. was D. is 10. The actor said he _______ born in 1984. A. was B. is C. be D. had been III. 将下列直接引语变为间接引语，间接引语变为直接引语。 1. Mr. Stone said, “May I have a cup of tea?” Mr. Stone ______________________. 2. The nurse said, “Let the children wash their hands themselves.” The nurse ______________________. 3. My uncle said, “Do not open the window.” My uncle _______________________. 4. John asked Mary, “ What do you know about the sea?” John asked Mary ________________. 5. The teacher said, “The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.” The teacher said that _____________. 6. The teacher told Tom to be careful with his pronunciation. _______________________________. 7. She asked me to open the door. _______________________________. 8. My mother advised me to have a good rest. _______________________________. 9. Peter asked me when I would leave Athens. _______________________________. 10. He asked me how I was getting along with my studies then. ______________________________.